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Fighter / Attack:
   Bell P-39 Airacobra
   Bell P-63 Kingcobra
   Brewster Buffalo
   Chance-Vought F-4U Corsair
   Curtiss P-40 Warhawk
   Curtiss SB2C Helldiver
   Douglas A-1 Skyraider
   Douglas A-26 Invader
   Douglas SBD Dauntless
   Fairey Firefly
   Focke-Wulf Fw 190
   Grumman F4F Wildcat
   Grumman F6F Hellcat
   Grumman F7F Tigercat
   Grumman F8F Bearcat
   Grumman TBF Avenger
   Hawker Hurricane
   Hawker Sea Fury
   Lockheed P-38 Lightning
   Messerschmitt Bf-109
   Mitsubishi A6M Zero-Sen
   North American P-51 Mustang

   Polikarpov I-16
   Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
   Supermarine Spitfire
   Yakovlev Yak-3
   Yakovlev Yak-9

Beechcraft AT-11 Kansan (C-45)
   Beechcraft T-34 Mentor
   Boeing / Stearman PT-17

   Commonwealth CA-25 Winjeel
   Commonwealth CA-1 Wirraway
   DeHavilland DHC-1 Chipmunk
   DeHavilland DH-82 Tiger Moth
   Fairchild PT-19 Cornell
   Hunting / Percival Provost
   Meyers OTW
   Nanchang CJ-6
   Naval Aircraft Factory N3N
   N. Am. BT-9 / BT-14 / Yale
   N. Am. T-6 Texan / SNJ / Harvard
   N. American T-28 Trojan

   Piaggio P149
   Ryan PT-22 Recruit

   Scottish Aviation T1 Bulldog
   Vultee BT-13 Valiant
   Yakovlev Yak-11
   Yakovlev Yak-18
   Yakovlev Yak-52

   Avro Lancaster
   Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
   Boeing B-29 Superfortress
   Bristol Blenheim / Bolingbroke
   Consolidated B-24 Liberator
   Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer

   Douglas A-3 Skywarrior
   DeHavilland Mosquito
   Fairey Swordfish
   Heinkel He-111 / Casa 2.111

   Lockheed PV-2 Harpoon / Ventura
   Martin B-26 Marauder
   North American B-25 Mitchell

   Beechcraft C-45 (AT-11)

   Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter (KC-97)
   Curtiss C-46 Commando
   Douglas C-47 Skytrain / Dakota
   Douglas C-54 Skymaster

   Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar
   Fairchild C-123 Provider
   Grumman C-1 Trader (S-2)
   Lockheed C-60 Lodestar
   Lockheed C-69 Constellation

Utility / Observation / Special Duty:
   Aeronca L-3 Grasshopper
   Aeronca L-16 Grasshopper
   Antonov AN-2 Colt
   Auster AOP 6/9
   Avro 652 Anson
   Avro Shackleton
   British Taylorcraft I-V
   Cessna L-19 / O-1 Bird Dog
   Cessna O-2 Super Skymaster
   Cessna T-50 / UC-78 Bobcat
   Consolidated PBY Catalina

   DeHavilland U-6A / L-20 Beaver
   Fairey Gannet
   Fairey Swordfish
   Fieseler Fi156 Storch
   Grumman S-2 Tracker (C-1)
   Grumman HU-16 Albatross
   Grumman OV-1 Mohawk
   Junkers Ju 52/3m

   Lockheed P2V Neptune
   Max Holste M.H.1521 Broussard
   Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifun

   Noorduyn UC-64 Norseman
   North American L-17 Navion
   N. Am./ Rockwell OV-10 Bronco
   Piper L-4 Grasshopper
   Stinson L-5 Sentinel
   Taylorcraft L-2 Grasshopper
   Westland Lysander

   Aero L-29 Delfin
   Aero L-39 Albatros
   Aermacchi MB-326
   Avro Vulcan
   BAC Strikemaster
   Blackburn (BAC) Buccaneer
   Canadair Tutor
   Cessna A-37 Dragonfly
   DeHavilland Vampire
   DeHavilland Venom
   English Electric Canberra
   English Electric Lightning
   Folland Gnat
   Fouga CM-170 Magister
   Gloster Meteor
   Grumman F9F Panther
   Hawker Hunter
   Hispano HA-200 Saeta
   Hunting Jet Provost
   Lockheed F-104 Starfighter
   Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star
   McDonnell-Douglas A-4 Skyhawk
   McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom
   Messerschmitt Me-262
   Mikoyan MiG-15
   Mikoyan MiG-17
   Mikoyan MiG-21
   N. Am. F-86 Sabre / FJ-4 Fury
   N. Am. F-100 Super Sabre
   N. Am. / Rockwell T-2 Buckeye
   Northrop T-38 Talon / F-5
   PZL / WSK TS-11 Iskra
   Saab J35 Draken
   Soko G-2A Galeb
   Temco Pinto & Super Pinto

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Cessna L-19 / O-1 Bird Dog

(Variants/Other Names: Cessna-305A; OE-1; TL-19D; TO-1)

Cessna L-19 Birddog
Photo courtesy Canadian Forces

History: One of a long line of civilian light planes converted to military use (like the Taylor, Piper, and Stinson "Grasshoppers" of World War II fame), the Cessna L-19 "Bird Dog" observation and Forward Air Control aircraft traced its origins to the Cessna 170, a 4-place civilian light plane, with its military power upgraded from 145 to 213hp.

Winning a U.S. Army contract in 1950 with its Model 305A redesign of the Model 170, Cessna was awarded an initial contract for 418 of the aircraft, which were then designated L-19A, and named "Bird Dog." By the time the final craft was manufactured in 1962, over 3,400 Bird Dogs had been built.

Structurally, the military version differed significantly from its civilian progenitor, with the passenger capacity reduced by two, the aft superstructure radically revised to provide a clear view rearward, and transparent panel being inserted in the wing above the seats. The access door was made wider to accommodate a standard military stretcher, for which support brackets were installed. The L-19 was judged to be much better in terms of performance on takeoff and climb than its world War II predecessors, as well as more comfortable for the pilot and observer.

In 1953, an L-19A-IT version was developed to provide instrument training capability. Of the 2,486 L-19s delivered by 1954, 60 were reassigned to the U.S. Marine Corps where they were designated OE-1.

Although they were only used in small numbers during the Korean War, Bird Dogs were widely employed during the early days of the Vietnam war, when the U.S. Air Force acquired many to use in the Forward Air Control and observation roles, for which they were upgraded to carry wing stores, such as White Phosphorus ("Willie-Pete") target-marking rockets.

In 1956, constant-speed propellers were first installed in the TL-19D trainer version. The final production variant, the improved L-19E, had a higher gross weight.

Aircraft model identification coding was changed by the U.S. armed forces in 1962, with the result that US Army L-19A, TL-19D and L-19E aircraft became O-1A, TO-1D and O-1E respectively, while the US Marine OE-1 became O-1B. The Marine Corps also received 25 of the higher-powered O-1C. Standard production models of the U.S. Army trainers were re-designated TO-1A and TO-1E. Supplied to many nations, Bird Dogs were also built under license in Japan.

In the 1970s, a Texas company, Ector Aircraft, created "civilianized" conversions of the Bird Dog called the Mountaineer (213-hp) and Super Mountaineer (240-hp).

While long out of production, some Bird Dogs are still in active use around the world. In Canada, for instance, O-1s were deactivated in 1973 by the Canadian Army (with whom it first entered service in 1954), but 17 were subsequently reassigned to the Royal Canadian Air Cadets for glider towing and familiarization flying. On the civilian market, Bird Dogs have become popular as economical warbirds in the United States and Australia.

Nicknames: Unknown

Specifications (O-1E):
        Engine: One 213-hp Continental O-470-11 flat-six piston engine
        Weight: Empty 1,614 lbs., Max Takeoff 2,400 lbs.
        Wing Span: 36ft. 0in.
        Length: 25ft. 9in.
        Height: 7ft. 3.5in.
            Maximum Speed: 151 mph
            Range: 530 miles
        Armament: Four underwing pylons for mixed stores of smoke canisters and "Willie-Pete" white phosphorus marking rockets.

Number Built: 3,431

Number Still Airworthy: 120+

Cockpit Photo (O-1G N16886)

(Click for larger)

International Bird Dog Association
International Liaison Pilots and Aircraft Ass'n (ILPA)
Standard Aircraft Characteristics: O-1C (Navair Publication) (.pdf)



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